From Russia With Love
KKNPP, ZiO-Podolsk, Informtech etc
The Koodankulam Nuclear Power Project (KKNPP) has
been constructed with substandard equipment and parts supplied by ZiO-Podolsk, an engineering subsidiary of the Russian company Rosatom. The company's official website has declared unequivocally: "Over the past few years ZiO produced and implemented a set of equipment for foreign nuclear power plants with VVER-1000: Tiarwan (China), Busher (Iran), Koodankulam (India)" (http://aozio.rii/produc-tion/ob-atom/). ZiO-Podolsk began shipping shoddy equipment in 2007 or perhaps even earlier. In February 2012, the procurement director, Mr Sergei Shutov, was arrested for buying low quality and cheap raw material, passing it off as more expensive grade and pocketing the difference. The Federal Security Service, or FSB, the successor organization to the KGB, has been investigating the case that has serious implications for the safety of nuclear power plants built by Russia.
During July 15-18, 2012, the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) delegation that included Special Secretary Mr A P Joshi, Deputy Secretary Mr Ninian Kumar and the Manager of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) Mr Dzhogesh Pady visited ZiO-Podolsk and discussed a range of issues related to the preparation for the launch of KKNPP-1, the progress of the KKNPP-2 etc. and signed a number of contracts relating to the implementation of the current phase of the KKNPP. (AtomEnergoMash, Posted 19.07.2012).
However, when People’s Movement Against Nuclear Energy (PMANE) asked the Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd (NPCIL) under RTI on January 28, 2013 for "a list of those equipment and parts that have been supplied by ZiO-Podolsk to the KKNPP units," the NPCIL replied tersely on February 20, 2013 (No. NPCIL/VSB/CPIO/2460/HQ/2013/371): "No Information regarding any investigation against ZiO-Podolsk is available to NPCIL." It is a gross untruth and deception because the top DAE officials had just visited the ZiO-Podolsk and they must have followed up the developments. The NPCIL is hiding serious and important information from the Indian public and misleading the entire nation possibly to protect some Russian and Indian middlemen and profiteers.
When the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) was asked on January 28, 2013 for "a list of those equipment and parts that have been supplied by ZiO-Podolsk to the KKNPP units" they responded on February 12, 2013 (No. AERB/RSD/RTI/Appl. No. 329/2013/2421) very evasively: "Selection of a company for supplying any equipment to NPCIL, is not under the purview of AERB. However, with respect to Quality Assurance (QA) during design, construction, commissioning and operation, a set of well established AERB documents on QA Codes and Guides are published and they were followed during the safety review of KKNPP."
Later the NPCIL confirmed officially (in its letter No. NPCIL/VSB/CPIO/2574/KKNPP/2013/737 dated April 29, 2013) that the controversial and corruption-ridden M/s ZiO Podolsk has supplied the following equipment and parts to the KKNPP: "Steam Generators, Cation and anion filters, Mechanical Filter, Moisture Separator and Reheater, Boric solution storage tanks, Regenerative blow down heat exchanger, Pipelines and fittings of different systems. Insulation materials, PHRS Heat exchanger." In other words, the Koodankulam project in its entirety is unsafe and dangerous.
Another Russian court has convicted one Mr Alexander Murach, Director of another notorious Russian company, Informtech, for fraud and sentenced him to three years in prison for selling counterfeit measuring equipment for nuclear and hydro power plants' turbines. The NPCIL has just confirmed in its letter dated May 24, 2013 (No. NPCIL/VSB/CPIO/2670/HQ/2013/884) that they have received "Communication equipment" from Informtech.
Some ten Czech and Slovak companies have also supplied valves, pumps and cables to the Koodankulam project. Leos Tomicek, Executive Vice-president of Rusatom Overseas says: "We already work with Czechs today. For example, for two blocks of the Indian Koodankulam nuclear power plant, nine Czech companies supplied us with valves, pumps, cables and other equipment worth 58 million dollars." There have been many cable-related accidents and deaths at the KKNPP. T S Subramanian says in a 2009 article: "Cabling is under way in the state-of-the-art control room for Unit-1, which is akin to an aircraft's cockpit. M I Joy, Additional Chief Engineer (Site Planning), KKNPP, said, "Once the cabling is completed, the entire control of the plant, including the reactor and turbine, will be done from the control room." The plant's control room is humidity-controlled. "The atmosphere is so pure here that the cables will not be spoiled," said Joy. (http://www.frontline.in/navigation/?type=static&page---tlonnet&rdurl=fl2616/stories/200908 14261612). It is this "so pure" atmosphere that has killed six workers in the past three months in electrocution accidents. The quality of the Czech cables and the checkered electrical work, and the role of Mr M I Joy in all these are important questions must be looked into.
Since shoddy and substandard equipment and parts in a massive nuclear power park pose enormous dangers of epic proportion to millions and millions of innocent people in Tamil Nadu, Kerala and elsewhere, this issue has to be thoroughly and comprehensively probed in collaboration with the officials of Rosatom, Atomstroyexport, Federal Security Service (FSB) and most importantly, with independent nuclear experts in India.
lzhorskiye Zavody, which is part ot United Machinery Plants (OMZ) holding, signed a contract with India for the construction of two nuclear reactor bodies for Koodankulam's station in 2002. They shipped a new nuclear reactor body that would be the first power unit of India's Koodankulam nuclear power plant to the city's sea port. Yevgeny Sergeyev, general director of lzhorskiye Zavody, said at a ceremony sending off the reactor: "We were so sure of our partners that we started to produce the first reactor bodies four months before the official contract was signed." Sergeyev said the reactor was completed six months before deadline (The St Petersburg Times, 19 November 2004, http://sptimes.ru/index.php7action id=2&story_id=2135).
The Koodankulam Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) arrived at the Tuticorin Port in January 2004. The first unit of the power plant was expected to be synchronized in December 2007, and the second unit by December 2008. Mr. S K Aggarwal, the then project director said: "The project officials have targeted to complete the works for synchronisation of both the units in March and September 2007 respectively."
The Russian Federal Service for Ecological, Technological and Nuclear Supervision, Rostekhnadzor, claimed in 2009: "The main causes of violations in the NPP construction works are insufficient qualifications, and the personnel's meagre (sic) knowledge of federal norms and rules, design documentation, and of the technological processes of equipment manufacturing. In particular, the top management of lzhorskiye Zavody have been advised of the low quality of the enterprise's products and have been warned that sanctions might be enforced, up to suspending the enterprise's equipment production licence" (http://www.gosnadzor.ru/osnovnaya_deyatelnost slujby/otcheti-o-deyatelnosti-sluzhbi-godoyje/). Unlike the original design of the Koodankulam RPVs, the erected ones have beltline welds, questionable quality and corruption charges.
When the People's Movement Against Nuclear Energy (PMANE)'s dialogue with the Central Government's Expert Group got aborted due to the violent attack on PMANE members by some antisocial elements, the Tamil Nadu Chief Minister appointed a team of four members to study the KKNPP issue. When that group included Dr M R Srinivasan, the former Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), activists objected to his inclusion in the team. However, he continued to be part of the team and PMANE did have a dialogue with the team on February 19, 2012 in Tirunelveli.
During interaction that was held in the presence of the Tirunelveli District Collector and other officials, Dr Srinivasan never mentioned once that the DAE had made changes in the core of the reactor. It is also not revealed to the public until now if he and the team included this unauthorized fiddling in the report they submitted to the CM. However, Dr Srinivasan has publicly acknowledged now: "We sought an additional safety mechanism well before the Fukushima disaster. The safety mechanism consists of valves. The original reactor design had to be altered and I feel this is the basic cause for delay." According to him, the valves were designed partially in India and Russia and compatibility with the reactor led to some hiccups (http://nevvindian-express.co.in/states/tamilnadu/articlel 517314.ece).
After fiddling with the original design of the KKNPP reactors, the Indian authorities went back and did an unauthorized "refit" without revealing the details to anyone. All these things point out the inherent deficiencies of the Russian reactors, their vulnerability due to all the fiddling, and their untrustworthiness after the refit. Since this matter has to do with the lives and sustenance of millions and millions of people, all the relevant details must be made public.
The Russian and the Indian nuclear authorities are hiding their corruption, wastefulness and inefficiency by conveniently blaming the struggling people for all the delay and cost overrun. The Indian Express newspaper asserts that the "delay is on the supply side from Russia as a whole lot of components have been replaced, some of which had to be shipped in." The KKNPP sources have also confessed that the "containment vessel of the nuclear core too has been changed since the old one had sprung a leak, which was detected three months ago during testing" (http://nevvindianexpress.com/states/tamil nadu/article 15 17314,ece).
The KKNPP authorities claim that "most components meant for Unit-II that were already in the warehouse were used as replacements for Unit-I." It is not clear why they were kept in the warehouse since Unit-2 was also being concurrently constructed along with Unit-1. The nuclear authorities are hiding the plain truth that Unit-1 is a complete failure and hence they are trying to revive it with the parts of Unit-2. Nobody knows the total loss that India has suffered because of all these shifting and shuffling.
The Srinivasan-confessed "refit" of KKNPP-1 is being blamed on its "idling for months together because of a major agitation plus litigation in the Supreme Court." This is an outrageous falsehood! Even when anti-KKNPP agitation was going on between September 2011 and March 2012, regular and full-swing maintenance work was going on at the Koodankulam plant on a daily basis. When the Tamil Nadu government changed its stand on the agitation on March 19, 2012 and pushed the agtationists to the village of Idinthakarai, the Site Director of KKNPP Reactors-I and II, Mr R S Surtaar, said the "water chemistry" of the water being used in the coolant was encouraging as proper maintenance had been carried out with skeletal staff during the protests (P Sudhakar, "Croatian experts to inspect the condition of equipment," The Hindu, March 23, 2012).
Mr S T Arasu, Senior Maintenance Engineer at KKNPP said: "We have operated all the pumps to measure the vibration level, which is less than the desirable baseline data and it shows the quality of our skilled workforce. Though this section could not be given complete attention during the past five-and-a-half months, the equipments are functioning in an amazing fashion" (P Sudhakar, "Employees at Kudankulam project site a charged lot," The Hindu, March 24, 2012).
Mr Yevgeniy N Dudkin, the head of the Russian Specialists Group, said that none of the Russian specialists of Atomstroyexport had left the project site during the protests. He pointed out that some additional works needed to be done and said, "It is not a huge work." (P Sudhakar and S Sundar, "Primary coolant pumps to undergo another trial," The Hindu, March 29, 2012.)
Similarly, when the Supreme Court began its hearing on a batch of petitions in September 2012, they refused to give a 'stay' to halt the ongoing work at KKNPP and allowed the authorities to continue with their work. Accordingly, the AERB allowed fuel loading in September 2012 dismissing the feelings and sentiments of millions of struggling people in Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Now the Supreme Court has given a green signal to run the project subject to 15 stringent recommendations.
But the KKNPP, NPCIL, AERB, and the DAE officials are conveniently blaming their inordinate delay in commissioning the KKNPP-1 on the "corrosion and leakage since sea water was used as the coolant." If the pipes leak and corrode within such a short time, the government should order a probe into the quality of these pipes, the quality of the various equipment and spares that were sent by the Russians. If these pipes and parts cannot withstand one year of sea water circulation, how are they going to function safely for 40-60 years?
Mounting Costs and Massive Corruption
Every single deal that India has signed with Russia has proved to be a disaster and big loss for India. The INS Vikramaditya/Admiral Gorshkov aircraft carrier has been delayed by five years with the final cost hovering in the $2.9 billion range. The time overrun and cost escalation also plague another mega Indo-Russian defense deal of upgrading MiG-29 fighter planes. The KKNPP is yet another disaster.
The approved cost of the KKNPP 1 & 2 project is Rs 13,171 crore. But the DAE and the NPCIL claim that they have spent an additional amount of Rs 4,000 crore on the non-performing project. Nobody knows the exact end cost of the KKNPP or the breakdown of the final amount. The former AERB Chief, Dr A Gopalakrishnan, has claimed that the decision to import 40,000 MW capacity Light Water Reactors (LWRs) in early 2006 was taken without any techno-economic evaluation by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) or any other agency. According to Dr Gopalakrishnan, "The decisions, price negotiations and supply terms are being negotiated by the UPA- 2 government in haste, with the intention of fulfilling the PM's commitments to these foreign governments and their companies before he demits office. The decision was merely a quid-pro-quo to give business to the reactor manufacturers in those countries which helped India get a Nuclear Suppliers' Group (NSG) waiver" (DNA, February 16, 2013).
The Russian nuclear company, Atomstroyexport, has just released its financial statement for the year 2011. The company claims that losses in 2011 were twice bigger than the losses of 2010, and that the company is on the brink of bankruptcy. This has seriously affected the Russian nuclear projects at Koodankulam in India and Busher in Iran <http://www.interfax.ru/business/txt.asp?id=283928>. One wonders if the Indian government is secretly helping the Russian company with its losses and bankruptcy.
The NPCIL authorities have claimed that the Rs 4,000 crore cost overrun at Koodankulam is due to the "increase in interest during construction (IDC), escalation on works, contractor's overheads and establishment charges" (RTI reply dated February 20, 2013). It is pertinent to note that the Russian government is not making such financial compensation to India for all the delay and cost overrun in all of the above projects.
Instead of explaining these mounting costs and massive irregularities, the Russian Ambassador to India Mr Alexamder Kadakin simply misleads Indians by unnecessary and unacceptable comments on India's internal affairs. Koodankulam financial irregularities as it appears from various reports involve both Indian and Russian nuclearocrats, diplomats and politicians.
Instead of reporting to the citizens of India inside India about the largest and imported nuclear power park at Koodankulam, the Prime Minister of India goes to South Africa and reassures the President of Russia of its commissioning process (no pun intended). When the Prime Minister had announced in Moscow that the KKNPP would be commissioned "in a couple of weeks" on December 15, 2011, the Tamil Nadu Chief Minister expressed her dissent and displeasure immediately.
The calendar for commissioning of KKNPP-1 has been shifted some 20 times in the past one year by politicians, bureaucrats and the nuclear authorities. In fact, this "commission dating" process has been going on from 2005 onwards and the Union Minister of State, Mr V Narayanasamy has set a record of sorts for himself in this calculated and irresponsible misinformation campaign. All these people have been lying to the nation repeatedly and recklessly. If there is any truth and decorum in public life in India, all these officials should resign from their respective posts.
No Information, No Liability, No Pollution Safeguard
The Government of India and the DAE have not shared any basic information with the Agitationists about the KKNPP. Even after the Central Information Commission (CIC) has instructed them, they have not shared the Site Evaluation Report (SER) and the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) with the protesters.
Neither have the Indian nuclear authorities got any liability from the Russian government and/or companies for KKNPP 1 and 2. The Government of India is not even willing to share the secretive Inter-Governmental Agreement (IGA) that they signed with the Russian government in 2008. Even as PMANE is dealing with KKNPP I and 2, the Government of India is announcing the agreement on KKNPP 3 and 4 with utter disregard for the sentiments of the local people and the people of Tamil Nadu as a whole.
The Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board (TNPCB) has also given consent to discharge enormous amounts of sewage, trade effluent, desalination plant effluent, demineralization effluent, steam generator effluent, suspended solids, dissolved solids, and many other waste products into the sea. The TNPCB fixed the temperature of the effluents at the discharge point as 45 degrees and later summarily reduced it to 36 or 37 degrees. They have also allowed the KKNPP to release significant amounts of Sulphur Dioxide, Nitrogen Dioxide, particulate matters and many other harmful radioactive pollutants into the air. Nobody seems to bother about the impact of all these on the sea, sea food, crops, dairy, food security, nutrition, health and wellbeing of people, their children and grandchildren.
Vol. 46, No. 2, Jul 21- 27, 2013
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