Looking Back At ‘Operation Blue Star’
Book Review
*Sree Darbar Sahib Te Faujihamle Bare-Dairy De Panne-Jo Itihas Ban Gaye
[Dairy Page On The Army Attack On Shri Darbar Sahib, Which Became History] (in Punjabi)
by Harbir Singh Bhanwar
Nanak Singh Pustakmala. Amritsar; Pages 176, Price: Rs 180

"The Army Attack on Shree Darbar Sahib..."*

Chaman Lal

The book* under review was published first in 1985 and this is its fifth edition. The book is dedicated to ‘all those martyrs, who while fighting the army attack bravely and facing barbaric army oppression and torture attained unique martyrdoms.

The contents of the book include firstly a message from Gurcharn Singh Tohra, SGPC President during ‘Operation Blue Star’ in 1984, honouring Bhanwar on behalf of Dharm Prachar Committee (Religious Propaganda Committee) in 1992. Messages also include from Punjabi novelist Jaswant Kanwal, Journalists-Mark Tully, Daily Ajit editor Barjinder Hamdard and Kuldip Nayar, academicians Pirthipal Singh Kapoor and Principal Satbir Singh. Preface of the book is penned by Advocate and Punjabi writer Gurnam Singh Tir. While author Bhanwar has written few words on first edition is 1985 and then on third edition in 1993.

The book is divided into two parts. First part contains one-month diary - from 1st June 1984 to 30th June 1984, but prior to June, author has written brief dairy of Dharam Yudh Morcha from 1981 to 1983. In second part of the book, author has included- evidences of Giani Sahib Singh, Giani Pritam Singh, Sant Longowal, Sardar Tohra, an interview with GianiZail Singh-President of India at that time and description of Nadirshahi loot by army. Appendix includes then SGPC President letter to then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi of 2nd June 1984.

This book is some eye witness and some closely observed account of the ‘Operation Blue Star’—the nomenclature of an attack of army on most important Sikh religious icon Golden Temple, which led to a sequence of events later, causing tragedy after tragedy and which are yet to have a closure. Bhanwar is one of highly respected journalist then of The Tribune group, which he was serving in 1984 and many years later till retirement and who continued to write mostly in Punjabi language after retirement. His other books include-Biography of Sant Longowal, Dharam Yudh Morcha, Biography of Artist Sobha Singh, Travelogue of Canada and few more. He is considered to be an objective observer of events in his dispassionate reporting career. Well Known Hindi novelist Jagdish Chander working for All India Radio at that time also wrote account of ‘Operation Blue Star’ in Hindi, these are the accounts which are considered objective and without any religious bias.

SGPC President in 1984, late G S Tohra wrote to Mrs Indira Gandhi on 2nd June, two days before army entered Golden Temple and two days after CRPF started shooting at Golden Temple from outside. He warned her not to play with fire and stop armed forces action. This letter is given in full in the appendix.

One-month diary from June 1st to 30th is covered in hundred pages, but 76 other pages include introductory pages and evidences of attack. First evidence is by Gyani Sahib Singh, who was head Granthi of Darbar Sahib-Golden temple and lived in backyard of the temple in street Shaheedan Bungan. The army has begun its attack in the early morning of 4th June around 4.45 am and continued blind firing till 5th June afternoon, till when he performed his duties. He could not enter the temple on 6th June. In an interview with the author, he said that army officials along with Gyani Mohan Singh and Gyani Puran Singh, came to his house on 7th June around 5am and asked to accompany them as General Sahib is calling him. When he accompanied them, he saw innumerable army men in Atta Mandi, Katra Dal Singh and backyard. At many places on the way, army men were saying, who is he, shoot him. Someone actually shot at him, but he escaped. Staff was under their custody; some were released at his bidding, in order to begin religious rituals in Harmandir Sahib. Bhindrawale was dead by 7th June. On 8th June, President Gyani Zail Singh visited Golden Temple, he was briefed by Gyani Sahib Singh about army atrocities, army men entered with shoes on and kept smoking. Gyani Zail Singh told Sahib Singh that he was not informed by Indira Gandhi about army attack. Gyani Zail Singh visited temple again on 27th September to offer apologies for army attack, as he was declared Tankhaiya by religious heads, and he said that Indira Gandhi did not tell him anything and he did not sign the order about army, it was signed by defence secretary, who was authorised to do so. Sahib Singh also disclosed that army would have looted treasury house, but it was saved by Gyani Zail Singh orders on 8th June.

Author Bhanwar also interviewed Gyani Pritam Singh, head Granthi of Akal Takhat who performed his duties during army attack, Panj Pyar as were also present during attack and during interview with author. He told that after firing by CRPF on 1st June, curfew was imposed, which was relaxed a little on 3rd June. He stayed till 3rd June night with other ragis, when about 4.40 am on 4th June, there were hand grenades thrown by army. Akal Takhat maryada continued till 5th June evening. Around 8 pm on 5th June, army entered with boots on and threw a light grenade before Akal Takht. At that time Bhindrawale jatha people were firing from upper floor, there was heavy firing from both sides. As per Govt sources, sixty commandoes were sent there, of which 59 were killed. Around 10 pm, tanks entered the temple and whole night there was firing from tanks. On 6th June morning Bhindrawale and others came for morning ablutions, Bhai Amrik Singh told that they had planned for martyrdom at 7.30 am, but now they will do it at 9.30 am. Around 9 am, they came out of temple and went to the house of a Shiromani committee employee and stayed there on 6&7 June. On 8th June morning army raided them and unrobed, they were planning to shoot us, that a Sikh constable went to his officer and they were saved. They were sent to military camp, from where they were brought back on 17th June.

Evidence of Sant Harchand Singh Longowal
Army had arrested Tohra, Longowal and many more and sent to Udaipur jail, from where they were released on 11th March 1985. He asked me to write the internal conditions of the golden temple complex, which they shall tell the author. Author planned to meet him on 1st September, but he was assassinated on 20th August. Longowal contradicted Harkishan Singh Surjeet statement that Bhindrawale was going to announce the setting up of Khalistan and Pakistan will recognise it immediately. Longowal said that neither Bhindrawale nor he was in favour of Khalistan, the angry youth did try with them to announce, but they did not. On 2nd June they saw 36 marks of bullets on three sides of Harmandir Sahiib. They were arrested on 6th June morning. Army killed even about 200-300 Bhaiyaas staying in basement.

Evidence of Tohra
Tohra had gone to jail after tearing up article 25 of Indian Constitution on 17th February 1984 and came out on 13th May in Chandigarh jail with Randhir Singh Cheema, Surjit Singh Barnala and Balwant Ramuwalia. He told army gave no warning and they brought tanks on 5th June at 10 am. They arrested them on 6th June at 4 am. Longowal, Jagir Singh Poohla, NachhatarBhalwan, Darshan Singh Isapur and Bibi Amarjit Kaur were with him in the room. An army mand lighted a cigarette, Tohra told him to stop it, he was stopped by a captain. Army killed even 150-200 Bangladeshis, who were staying there. Few of Bhindrawale’s jatha-Amarjit Chawla, Bhai Manjit Singh, HarmandarSandhu, Rajinder Mehta etc came to them and he saved them by telling that they are employees of the committee. On 8th June morning they were sent out on plane. Tohra told about the secret meetings held by them with the Govt leaders in which, Badal, Barnala and Ravi Inder were present. In official chalan it is mentioned that during army action 593 people were killed and around 1500 were captured.

A Meeting with Gyani Zail Singh in 1994—he told that he was deceived during anti Sikh riots in Delhi. Gyani mentioned that Master Tara Singh was the wise leader of Akalis.

Author mentions that army had looted the complex brutally including his own house. Some looting was done by those municipal employees who were deputed to pick up dead bodies and do cleaning.

In only appendix, Bhanwar has given the text of letter written by Tohra to Mrs Indira Gandhi on 2nd June 1984, just after CRPF started shooting at Golden temple, it is harsh letter.

Coming to the main 30 days diary of the author—
The first day of June diary begins with calling it a black day in the history of Punjab, as CRPF and BSF fired at Golden Temple complex from all sides without any provocation causing 32 big bullet marks on golden cover of the temple. Firing started at about 12.40 pm and continued till 8.15 pm. Eleven persons were killed in the firing and dozens got injured. Thirty- two-hour curfew was imposed at 9 pm. Sant Longowal tried many times to talk to President Zail Singh, but he avoided.

A German journalist was going to interview Bhindrawale, his accompanying Indian journalist was threatened to be shot, German stood up and told-shoot me first. Author was in his Tribune office and was told not to return to residence in Golden Temple complex, so he stayed with HT reporter K S Tomar.

On 2nd they went to Golden Temple, met Longowal during curfew hours, were threatened by CRP. Akal Takht Jathedar and Golden Temple Head Granthi Kirpal Singh and Sahib Singh issued statements. Babbar Khalsa activist Mehnga Singh and four associates of Bhindrawale, who died in yesterday firing were cremated outside Langar hall. Author picked up few essentials from his flat as curfew time was approaching. In night news it was announced that Punjab had been handed over to the army. He stayed again with Tomar.

3rd June—two hours relaxation in Curfew, author met Tohra-Longowal in complex. It was Shaheedigurpurb of Vth Guru Arjun Dev today. Journalists met Bhindrawale, who told reporters that Govt will serve notice tomorrow 4th June to surrender arms in 24 hours and will attack gurdwaras in many districts on 5th June. Subhash Kirpekar of TOI, Ajoy Bose of London Guardian came from Delhi, Bhanwar took them to Bhindrawale. Guards of Bhindrawale searched all of them very badly. A journalist Mohinder Singh had observed that outside Temple Indira’s CRPF and inside Bhindrawale’s-both harass people. Bhindrawale told that Sikhs are en¬slaved in India and told they will break the shackles. Bhai Amrik Singh, Subeg Singh, Rachhpal Singh and GianiPuran Singh were with him. Lieutenant General Ranjit Singh Dayal was appointed advisor to Punjab Governor. Censorship was imposed and Curfew was announced, Author could not pick up necessary clothes or wife’s gold, kept refrigerator on and ran out in anxiety from temple complex.

4th June—Army gave notice to militants to surrender, but they did not and kept firing back.

5th June—Curfew extended Jatha which went to Pakistan was asked to stay back for two more days. Electricity of whole city disconnected around 9 pm and heavy firing continued for whole night.

6th June—Author Could not sleep till late last night. In morning, less firing. Some officials said that army captured the complex, there was firing for whole night during 5-6th night. There were piles of bodies of Sikhs, one truck carried 38 bodies. Some diehard Hindus were celebrating. By 9.30 am on 6th June, the resistance to army was over.

7th June—BBC told that about 450 militants surrendered, bodies of Bhindrawale, Subegh Singh, Amrik Singh located from a room of Akal Takht. Many people from Ajnala side marched towards Golden temple, many of them were shot dead, so in some other areas. Defence minister KP Singhdeo visited temple on the day.
Bhindrawale and Amrik Singh bodies were kept on ice slabs, film was made and were shown to nearby Mohalla residents.

8th June—Sikh hearts were hurt badly. Ahmad Shah Abdali had attacked Golden Temple in 1762, Sikhs still not forget that attack and they will not forget this. Gyani Zail Singh, supreme commander of army visited temple today. Rajya Sabha member Khushwant Singh returned his Padam Shree award and condemned attack on temple...

9th June—Bodies were stagnating and giving bad odour, the cleanliness workers were given 50 rupees per body to lift the bodies, they were free to take any wearable on the bodies. Brahma Chelani AP reporter met author, he sent accurate news. There was too much crowd on shops during curfew relaxation hours.

10th June—BBC reported that 400 Sikh regiment Jawan’s rebelled in Ganganagar against army attack. Prof. SP Dhawan told that MP Lehna Singh Tur’s brother Dr. Gurbachan Singh was killed by army while he was reading in his house. A Sikh army captain told Sikh police officer outside his house that ‘our army has gone mad’, go inside the home. Author went to see Darbar Sahib, could not see his residential quarter, but destruction of temple saddened him. Major General Kuldip Singh Brar had led the army action.
11th June—BBC report of Sikh army rebellion in Bihar. Radio reported that Congress MP Devinder Singh Garcha had resigned from Lok Sabha and Congress party. Captain Amrinder Singh had already done it.

12th June—Akal Takhat Jathedar Gyani Kirpal Singh gave a statement which angered youth, later came to be known that Shiromani committee officials gave him the statement to read it. BBC reported Sikh army rebellion reached now six places and 53 Sikh army men killed by now. Later many convicted to long imprisonments. A police inspector told that Bhindrawale cremation was done with full ritualistic honours. Information officer of Darbar Sahib Narinder Singh Nanda was in detention with whole family during this period, he was heart patient and had to be admitted in hospital due to military’s mistreatment.

13th June—BBC Reported that rebellious Sikh army men count crossed 2000, There had been revolt at Agartala, Siliguri, and more, at Rajouri in J&K, some army men had gone to Pakistan. TS Oberoi, western command CEO said that rebel Sikh army men could be hanged. Gyani Sahib Singh, Darbar sahib Head Granthi issued statement. Author went to see the destruction of Akal Takhat. It was heard that Gyani Zail Singh was very unhappy after seeing Golden Temple, he said that he was not taken into confidence by Mrs Gandhi before army action. Congress leaders say they were looking to Gyani ji, they would have all resigned if he had resigned. There would have been bigger revolt among Sikh army men in army, which would have become difficult to control.

14th June—Executive Magistrate Sarup Singh was ASSIGNED THE DUTY TO HAVE REMAINS OF Bhindrawale and others to Keeratpur Sahib for final rites. All India Radio reported that Bhindrawale was killed by Babbar Khalsa. BBC broadcasted interview of DrJagjit Singh from London, threatening Indira Gandhi. Badal and Barnala were shifted to Panchmarhi in MP from Chandigarh jail. Historian Dr Ganda Singh returned his Padma Shree.

15th June—SGPC Acting President Atma Singh appealed to Singh Sahiban for leadership of Sikh Panth, Outside journalists were brought to Darbar Sahib, though local journalists were not allowed yet to go inside. Hindu fanatic Surinder Billa came to give press note to Tomar, who snubbed him for provocations. Akali Dal youth wing President Prem Singh Chandumajra was arrested at Patiala and detained under NSA. Amritsar SSP Sube Singh transferred and Bua Singh brought, who killed many Sikhs in encounters later.

16th June—Ajit editor Sadhu Singh Hamdard returned his Padma Shree award to protest army action, with heart attack he died on 29th July 1984. Author was told that his residence in temple complex was vandalised. UNI reporter Surinder Arora phoned author at his residence, some Tamil fauji picked, author got phone disconnected, resulting in breaking of telephone set. Baba Sham Singh dera gurdwara was attacked by army and ragis tortured. Many were brutally killed by army. Author observed that these army men were more brutal than Moghul and Afghan attackers.

17th June—Curfew clamped again in Amritsar. President Gyani Zail Singh in his broadcast from Radio and TV, blamed extremists for attack on Darbar Sahib. Author came to meet his wife in Jandwal near Pathankot. There was huge que for bus to Pathankot, army searched everyone before riding the bus. At little distance CRP and army again asked passengers to get out, one passenger objected was snubbed and he said- ‘if those days passed, these days will also pass’! down. Searches were done many more times before reaching and passengers saying that even British rule was better than this. Three hours journey took 7-8 hours to complete. Author wife asked about neighbours and their children. One Hazuri ragi Amrik Singh Aman was killed, he was blind. His son was arrested from information office, was sent to Jodhpur jail with 79 other Sikh youth, who were charged with sedition. Author wife told that Himachalis celebrated Bhindrawale’s killing.

18th June—SGPC and Singh Sahiban decided to rebuild Akal Takhat
with original shape. Kar seva was assigned to Baba Harbans Singh and Baba Karnail Singh. Author observes that major reason for rise of terrorism in Punjab was that common Sikhs got this feeling ingrained, that Sikhs are being discriminated in every field throughout the country. Denying Chandigarh to Punjab, giving Punjab waters to other states etc. strength-ened this feeling. Britishers during their hundred-year rule never attacked any Gurdwara.

19th June—Baba Harbans Singh put the condition for Kar Seva -the full withdrawal of army and support of Baba Khark Singh for Kar seva. Central minister Buta Singh visited temple today again. Press secretary to President Tarlochan Singh was with him, also AS Vaidya army chief came. Author returned to Amritsar from Jandwal going through same treatment as in onward journey.

20th June—Major General R K Gaur told the press in Chandigarh that 92 army Jawan’s were killed along with 4 JOC’s and 4 officers. Rajiv Gandhi told a meeting that 700 Jawan’s were killed in army action. Sikh Museum officials told that 103 pictures were hit by bullets, and many paintings were taken over including Sobha Singh artist painting of Mian Mir. Many other historic documents and monuments were taken away.

21 June—Sikh Reference Library was burnt, Ujagar Singh Sekhwan assumed charge as acting President of Akali Dal in absence of Longowal, being in Jail. Devinder Duggal in charge of Sikh reference library told that more than 500 manuscripts, more than 1200 files, furniture picture albums were taken over by army. Harjit Singh Jhabal became acting President of youth wing, who was assassinated by militants in 1987. Rumours of Bhindrawale in Pakistan etc, but his body was identified by Harcharn Singh Rode, his brother in army as Subedar.

22th June—Author met Kulwant Singh Randhawa, deputy secretary SGPC, he returned from Pakistan. They were to return on 4th June morning with 1400 member Jatha, train from Atari border was due at 10 am, but they were detained for two more days in Pakistan. Jatha members had spent all the money they had; it was burning hot weather. 6th June morning they came to Atari. At 7 pm train started towards Amritsar, but did not stop there and reached Ambala straight at 2.30 am. They were kept in a school and sent to districts on 8th June.

23rd June—Prime Minister Indira Gandhi came to Golden Temple. All Singh Sahiban boycotted her. Baba Khark Singh refused to meet her. Gyani Sahib Singh showed her the bullet marks on Golden Temple. Some army officer said that this was not their bullets, then Sahib Singh said that he might have shot that bullet! Even Ahmad Shah Abdali had not destroyed Akal Takhat, Smt Gandhi said that extremists were hiding here, they had made it a fort. Sahib Singh told, but there were no extremists in 35 other Gurdwaras, why army attacked there? What can be done now, Mrs Gandhi asked, recall army immediately-Singh preachers told. It will be difficult, army generals don’t agree-Mrs Gandhi told. Author visited his family home in Ludhiana today, met his mother. He had faced more difficulties in life than all his brothers, so mother bothered about him. 700 Panchs and Sarpanchs were taken to Golden temple today.

24th June—MP Sat Pal Mittal and Arya Sabha issued statements in favour of Indira Gandhi. Shiromani committee publicity in charge Gurmit Singh Cheema came at office today and told that real attack on Darbar Sahib took place around 10 pm on 5th June. When army with tanks and arsenal entered from saran side. Langar could not be cooked on 4th June, nearby street people sent some food, consumed by Babbar Khalsa. He described eye witness account that army men were all drunkard it was fierce battle inside. There was a grenade attack which army said that militants threw. Sikhs were asked to run and shot dead, more than 800 hundred people were killed, many died of thirst. One young woman, whose husband was lying dead, put her two-year-old dead child on his chest and sat crying. There was rumour of Longowal and Tohra being shot dead. Bibi Amarjit Kaur said that if she were in place of Bhindrawale, she would have told army don’t shoot at my Guru, put her to pieces, if they wanted. Sikh Student Federation leaders-Harmandar Singh Sandhu, Amarjit Chawla, Rajinder Mehta, Bhai Manjit Singh came with naked heads and without Kirpans and asked to save them as being SGPC employees, Tohra saved them by saying so. Before sending all to camp jail, children from 5 years to 80 years old people finger prints were taken and many tortured later.

25Th June—Many visitors were bitterly critical of Bhindrawale destroyed the whole Sikh quam, many close by residents of Golden temple had lost lakhs of money. Many were saying it to be the conspiracy of the Govt., they could have arrested Bhindrawale by other means as well. Tribune reporter A S Prashar had also come, author visited his residence and it was completely vandalised. TV was broken, jewellery, everything was stolen, it happened with his neighbours as well. Today was last day for making claims of loss to DC, he filed the claim. All claims were rejected, only after Barnala Sarkar came, they were compensated with ten thousand rupees each.

26th June—57 more people arrested including Baba Nihal Singh Harianbelawale. On Author’s wife’s birthday, only a letter was sent as gift.

27th June—At Tomar house, where author was staying was the adda of anti-Sikh people, they talked like- two hundred naked girls found in Darbar sahib basement, many foreigners, Muslims were arrested kind of things. Tomar was a diplomat, he kept every side pleased. But he sheltered author in crisis time, so he was grateful to him, though another journalist used to prejudice him against author.

28th June—SGPC acting President Atma Singh and Akali Dal acting Presi¬dent Ujagar Singh Sekhwan arrested from Guru Ramdas hospital, which were having these offices during this period. Captain Amrindr Singh met Zail Singh and demanded complex be handed over to SGPC after vacating it from army.

29th June—Akali Dal held its first meeting after attack under Bibi Rajinder Kaur as chair, attended by Ramoowalia, Dhindsa, Bhunder, Basant Singh Khalsa, Prakash Majithia, Talib Sandhu, Sucha Singh Chhotepur MLA’s etc. and endorsed Five Singh Sahiban call to observe 15th July as Shaheedi day. Adhoc committee e of Akali dal under Prakash Singh Majithia formed, changed on 4th November with Surjan Singh Thekedar. Rajimder Singh Dhaliwal was made SGPC acting president. Harkishn Singh Surjeet demanded withdrawal of army and one-sided acceptance of Akali Dal demands. KPS Gill appointed new DGP.

30th June—Governor BD Pandey resigned today, made sacrificial lamb. KT Satarawala new Governor assumed charge on 2nd July. Talks with Akali dal failed and Govt mischievously brought Santa Singh for Kar seva. He was thrown out of Sikh panth World Sikh convention threatened that by 30th September army must vacate and hand over Complex to SGPC, which was done on 29th September. Later Indira Gandhi shot dead on 31st October, elections in December 1984, Rajiv Gandhi became PM, agreement with Longowal on 24th July 1985, Longowal killed on 20th August 1985. Elections in Punjab held on 25th Sep-tember. Akali Govt of Barnala, dis¬solved on 10th May 1987. Akal Takhat rebuilt by Baba Thakar Singh, Harbans Singh and other saints.

Harbir Singh Bhanwar’s record of events of Operation Blue Star in Golden Temple Amritsar in first week of June 1984 raises many issues. Even if this account is taken as authentic, yet there are other accounts of Khalistani terrorist’s atrocities on people in Punjab and elsewhere. Bhindrawale is projected as a Sant, which formally he was, but does his conduct was like a saint? Army and other armed forces in Punjab and elsewhere and in many other situations are definitely brutal and barbaric in their treatment of people, especially rebels, be they separatists, Kashmiris, Nagas, Naxals or other resistance sections of society-organised workers, peasants, students, youth etc.

Any state wants the people to treat army as a ‘holy cow’, not to raise any question on their conduct. Yet everywhere in the world, army and armed forces have committed untold sufferings on their people. Hitler’s Nazi forces are the most extreme example of exterminating people in millions.

So Bhanwar’s narration of Golden Temple events differ from many other section’s narration of events as well. As Bhanwar himself has mentioned the Hindus narrative of events or the fierce firing by militants from inside the Akal Takht-supreme religious authority of Sikh faith. How could anyone justify making a religious place as a fort for fighting political battle with the state?

Khalistanis killed almost as many innocent people in Punjab, as many Police or armed forces killed Khalistanis in fake encounters. State staging fake encounters cannot be justified, even if Khalistanis had been committing murders of innocent people. Had people themselves taken to arms and hit back Khalistanis, that could be justified, but not police staging killings without following any legal process. But that had been the practice since 1947 transfer of power from colonial rulers to Indian rulers and the Indian rulers who had been resisting black laws like sedition, took recourse to same laws and practices as followed by British colonialism. Rather they added another weapon of oppression-fake encounters, which started even from Nehru’s time, when peasant resistance in Tebhaga and Telangana was crushed with the help of these staged encounters, later on Indira Gandhi took it to extremes and the RSS regime has now made it a part of statecraft with having enough staged killings in Gujarat in 2002 and now Yogi Aditya Nath is taking it as a normal state practice and awards those police officials, who stage these fake encounters. There is no check, Human rights commissions, judicial courts including the highest court-Supreme Court look the other way. Signs of growing fascism are complete.

Same way-the army’s role in North East, J&K or Punjab is no different from police or other armed wings of the state. They don’t bother about niceties of the legal procedures and shoot or torture people blindly, as they did in Golden Temple or in North East, where Manipur mothers had to stage a naked procession in the centre of the city-shouting the army men to ‘rape us’ to shame them.

[Writer is retired Professor from JNU, New Delhi and ex Dean, Language Faculty of Panjab University, Chandigarh]
[Contact : 9868774820,] 

Back to Home Page

Vol. 54, No. 14-17, Oct 3 - 30, 2021