Space-time and Marxism
The description of a unified four-dimensional space-time has removed the division of time into past, present and future.

Einstein once expressed this point in a letter where he wrote, "To us who are committed physicist, the past, present and future are only illusions, however persistent." The reason for this is that, according to relativity theory, time does not "happen" bit by bit, or moment by moment, it is stretched out, like space, in its entirety. Time is simply 'there'. The way Marx dealt with Capital or entire Marxism is based on this travel in time axis with spaces intertwined with it, there is no separation of space and time.
Arup Baisya, Silchar, Assam

Human Trafficking
Two trafficking survivors have brought a case against Italy and Libya to a UN committee. The two Nigerian women claim the countries failed to protect their rights and left them vulnerable to abuse and exploitation.

The Italian legal rights association, ASGI (The Association for Juridical Studies on Immigration), helped the survivors take their case to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW).

ASGI held a press conference on December 16 in which they spoke about the harrowing experiences of Princess and Doris.

According to ASGI, “from the moment the women crossed the border into Niger; they were repeatedly sold and bought by different actors. They have been abused and tortured in order to profit from their exploitation: in informal places of detention, they have been tortured in order to obtain ransom payments from their families. When their families could not pay, they were sold to people who enslaved them and forced them into prostitution to pay for the cost of their release.”

Traffickers brought both women to Libya from Nigeria in 2017 and 2018 respectively with the goal of trapping them in forced prostitution. Along their journey to Libya and within the country, they were both locked into an extremely traumatic cycle of enslavement, abuse and exploitation, as they were repeatedly detained in shocking conditions and sold from one criminal group to the next.

After successfully escaping captors, Princess and Doris attempted to cross the Mediterranean to Europe. However, both were intercepted by the Libyan Coast Guard and taken to detention centres, returning them to the cycle of abuse.

Eventually, Doris and Princess were sent home to Nigeria through the International Organisation for Migration (IOM)’s “voluntary humanitarian repatriation” programme. However, ASGI lawyers have called into question the extent to which repatriation in these circumstances can be considered voluntary, given that they were not offered any other choice that would help them escape abuse.

As ASGI lawyers point out, the migration management system which led to the enslavement of Princess and Doris receives considerable financial support from Italy and the EU. Indeed, Italy and Libya have made several bilateral agreements in recent years, with support from the EU, which commit funding for the Libyan Coast Guard and authorities to build their capacity to intercept and detain people trying to reach Europe.

Italy dedicated €11 million (around $12.5 million) of funding to Libya and the IOM repatriation programme between 2017 and 2020. Libyan authorities, including the Coast Guard, have also received substantial amounts of funding from the EU Trust Fund for Africa.

International human rights conventions oblige States to identify victims of trafficking and protect them from re-trafficking. Doris and Princess were not identified as victims and they were put at risk of re-trafficking when they were returned to Nigeria.
Freedom United

Back to Home Page

Vol 54, No. 31, Jan 30 - Feb 5, 2022