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December: the cruelest month in life of Indian Democracy

Radhakanta Barik

 Advani, after the partition migrated to the city of Bombay. He was a RSS pracharak in Karachi town.   Bhisma Sahni the leading Hindi novelist hailed from the same city. He was a close observer of the political situation of Karachi where the RSS workers were allowed to kill a cock while undergoing the training at their Sakhas. They got socialized in a manner by which they would not feel scared of the blood boozing from the human being. This has got a vivid description in his novel Tamas.  After coming to Bombay, he established his association with Shiv Sena Chief Bal Thakery and both were close friends worked together in planning riots in the streets of the city. December of 1992 was the cruelest month for Indian democracy and specifically the city of Bombay. There were series of riots happened in the city in the aftermath of December6. There was a victory procession organised by the RSS and Shivsena people where they attacked the minorities specifically their property and life. It is true that Hindustan Times put it aptly,' when Babri fell Bombay burnt'. What a close bond the Ayodhya to Bombay around 2000 km away but both the cities thought alike. Poor handling of the protest of Muslims on 6th December has got a subtle observation from Justice Srikrishna "The immediate causes of the communal riots on 6th December 1992 were (a) the demolition of Babri Masjid, (b) the aggravation of Muslim sentiments by the Hindus with their celebration rallies and (c) the insensitive and harsh approach of the police while handling the protesting mobs which initially were not violent…This situation was misdiagnosed, mishandled and turned messier, “These riots culminated in deaths of 900 people consisting of 700 Muslims and 200 Hindus. The villain of the whole scene was lady Macbeth Shri L K Advani who said in 1911: “After the demolition in Ayodhya, there were disturbances in Bombay and I felt so unhappy that day.” This explains the psychological problems suffered by Lady Macbeth after killing king Duncan known as sleepwalking. In the days of sleep walking she used to go and wash her hands to wash of her blood from her hands, This is like repentance of Advani who organised the destruction of the Babri Masjid and his supporters in Bombay attacked the innocent Muslims. His repentance of the riots like Lady Macbeth, "all the perfumes of arabia will not sweeten this little hand."

Rathyatra politics culminated in the destruction of the Babri Masjid which created a large scale riots in the major cities of India. Cities like Jaipur and Bhopal are not industrial cities where as Bombay and Ahmadabad are the industrial towns. These two cities started burning in post rathyatra politics. Bombay film has tried to capture the riots of the cities in his cinematic narrative where Muslim community started a spontaneous protest against the breakdown of the Babrimasjid. While each religious community became a part of the we the people of India on a condition that state provides security to their religious places. This scene has been captured by the film maker as the camera moves on the mosque from where the crowd is moving to the street and attacking public transport buses and vehicles as a symbol of protest. But the police should have allowed the procession to move and reach their destination. On the contrary they have been attacked by the RSS and Police both which resulted in deaths. Camera moves on two children over whom petrol is being poured in the process. Somehow both the children survived with mental scars. In the story lovers belonging two different communities getting married but cannot enjoy their fourth night as the civil society does not recognize their marriage as a legal although Indian constitution recognizes. These lovers for the first time meet get expressed in a beautiful song “Hama re Hama Ho gai huma tum pahil bar mile’ but in a reality two different persons allowed to dance which explains the reality. We have different identities and sharing the space but communal riots get organised to push one group from the shared space to the margin of the society. Urban society based on individuality does not work. It turns into a community identity. This film uses the text in the political context of constitutional democracy. Justice Srikrishnan Commission report recognizes the protest by Muslims as a spontaneous protest which would have managed by the Bombay police in a professional manner. Furthermore it has found the names of policemen and name of the RSS and Shivsena people who involved in the attacks on Muslims. No Justice has reached these victims till now. The story of injustice became a reality for the people living on the margins.

The district administration failed in maintaining law and order as the District Collector who was there when the destruction of the Babri Masjid was going on and he did not give firing order against the RSS people. He got a promotion by the BJP government and made MP. It is interesting to note here that most of the police men show bias against the Minorities specifically Muslims in the North India. V K Rai, a retired police officer from UP has prepared a document of studying two riots showing their bias against the Muslims. BJP government reinforced this consciousness among the top administrators of the Northern India. There is always exception. In an interview with a District Collector of the neighboring district of Jaipur tells me that they took precautionary measures by which no untoward incidents happen in their district when Jaipur started burning in the post December 6. Most of the State capitals of Northern and Western States suffered the riots. It is the basic principle of the district administration that any peaceful protest must be allowed to pass. But in Jaipur, Bombay and Ahmadabad these protesters were attacked by the RSS people. Justice Srikrishna Commission report says that the state turned into 'effeminate state' which did not act against the police officers who killed the innocent citizens of Bombay. The city started burning for days and the BJP and Shivsena government did not stop till the group of industrialists led by Tata went and protested against the inaction of the civil administration. Ahmadabad and Baroda started burning with Bombay which affected the economy and society. The way BJP mobilised their support only through riots against the minorities which has given fruits in electorally. These riots and killings did not create ripples in the hearts of artists and film makers to get engaged with such a state of affairs. It is only a Tamil Film maker Mani Ratnam who made Bombay where the scene of riot of the town is shown in the film. The riot has created fear in the young couple who have married on the basis of inter community. Fear is the most important emotion gets created in the riots which affect both HIndus and Muslims. I did do a study on Gujarat riots where I found that people suffered from fear psychosis in the post-riot scenario.

The district administration failed in maintaing law and order as the District Collector who was there when the destruction of the Babri Masjid was going on and he did not give firing order against the RSS people. He got a promotion by the BJP government and made MP. It is interesting to note here that most of the police men show bias against the Minorities specifically Muslims in the North India. V K Rai, a retired police officer from UP has prepared a document of studying two riots showing their bias against the Muslims. BJP government reinforced this consciousness among the top administrators of the Northern India. There is always exception. In an interview with a District Collector of the neighboring district of Jaipur tells me that they took precautionary measures by which no untoward incidents happen in their district when Jaipur started burning in the post December 6. Most of the State capitals of Northern and Western States suffered the riots. It is the basic principle of the district administration that any peaceful protest must be allowed to pass. But in Jaipur, Bombay and Ahmadabad these protesters were attacked by the RSS people. Justice Srikrishna Commission report says that the state turned into 'effeminate state' which did not act against the police officers who killed the innocent citizens of Bombay. The city started burning for days and the BJP and Shivsena government did not stop till the group of industrialists led by Tata went and protested against the inaction of the civil administration.

 Ahmadabad and Baroda started burning with Bombay which affected the economy and society. The way BJP mobilised their support only through riots against the minorities which has given fruits in electorally. These riots and killings did not create ripples in the hearts of artists and film makers to get engaged with such a state of affairs. It is only a Tamil Film maker Mani Ratnam who made Bombay where the scene of riot of the town is shown in the film. The riot has created fear in the young couple who have married on the basis of inter community. Fear is the most important emotion gets created in the riots which affect both HIndus and Muslims. I did do a study on Gujarat riots where I found that people suffered from fear psychosis in the post-riot scenario. In an interview with the senior civil servant Raj Kishore Mishra working in the Home Ministry was of the opinion that A criminal case filed in 1993 against the DM, SP of Fiazbad district and other right-wing functionaries is still pending in the court of the special judge. I recently appeared as a prosecution witness in the case for having conveyed prosecution sanction as a Director in the MHA. Such is the efficiency and efficacy of our criminal justice system!

Post rathyatra politics needs to be probed by us. Rathyatra politics of Advani culminated in destruction of the Babri Masjid. This brought an end to democratic politics based on dialogue and discussion. Moreover there are public institutions such as Judiciary and Parliament have been ignored by the RSS.Indian judiciary has six important features of Indian constitution which should not be amended. One of them is secularism which means that every citizen can practice his religion according to conscience. This basic feature got threatened by the Advani and co politics. The incident of destruction on December 6 turned into a political metaphor. This metaphor explains that violence as a means used by the right wing forces for settling disputes. This brings a question over the theory of contract on which Indian State is based that various classes, castes and communities decided to create a neutral state to settle their disputes among them. For the first time the contract has been ruptured. Muslims trust over their own contract at the time of transfer of power has got weekend.  A religious place and historical monument got destroyed by these militant forces.

On 7th December I was in Bhopal which was under curfew as the Muslims protested against destruction of the Babri Masjid. Right to protest by social groups has been given due place in our constitutional democracy. Their protest was not liked by the BJP government of MP which resulted in police firing and killing of some innocent citizens. Curfew has got imposed in the city. No vehicle was moving. Somehow in the morning we reached the MP Academy of Administration around ten kms away from the station. In the evening we find in the institute that a group headed by the official Shri Jha, a provincial service officer belonging to RSS has organised a small group holding pistols for attacking the Muslims. Some of us opposed him. But he cooled down without others support. The curfew continued for almost five days and nobody was allowed to go out. But I went moved around to see the sufferings of people. Everybody was remembering Shri Arjun Singh as the chief minister of MP who never allowed no riot to happen in capital town of the province. In their memory they remember the city without riots. Political personality and public administration have a close bond. Those people with vision do not allow the riots to happen by which people of the city remember as a joyful moment of their memory in comparison with the December 6 when the BJP government allowed the riots to happen on that day.

The lumens of the Sangh parivar basically belonging to the RSS which has been upgraded by 1992 as the political organisation which got hidden like Chholi Se Pichhe kya hai that vulgar song and vulgar action of the RSS have a same meaning for Indian culture and Indian democracy. They admitted in a book published recently by American political scientist Handerson. This is a political design created by fertile imagination of the RSS thinkers. Their actions threw new signs and new messages. Three domes of the Babri Masjid like three pillars of the Indian state- democracy secularism and the rule of law. They brought a language of violence in Indian politics which got replaced the dialogic language. It is a threat to judiciary and parliament where these dialogues take place. They want to forcibly capture the state power and create a Hindu rastra. Babri Masjid stands for political metaphor which gets used in their rhetoric off and on. Whenever their agenda has not implemented in democratic means suddenly they shifted to language of violence. This is the logic of Hindutva politics.

Advani's December remains as the cruelest month of Indian history and politics. T S Eliot by mistake has written it that April the cruelest month. The month as refereed by Indian people that the month of Magha is good for someone and for some it is for destruction." Kahar Magh Mas, Kahar sarbanas' This sarbanas or destruction Indian people are experiencing till today. A political party led by Advani is BJP which is creator of the sarbanas. It has brought prosperity for them. They cited one story that Babri Masjid Ram Mandir conflict in stigmatization of people of India. Destruction of the Babri Masjid gave them political bonaza, they increased their number of seats in the legislature of Indian States and Parliament of India. Advani must be sitting in the house and looking at his garden and enjoying his power over a cup of tea. Life has turned into series of cup of teas for them. Tea cup represents as the process of negotiation in politics. They enjoy the negotiation process either various regional groups in their permutation and combination.  They intended to create new image in Indian politics that is the Ram Mandir and telling people that that is the place Mandir will be built. Whether judiciary agrees or not. Whether dialogue between Hindutva and Muslim brings a reconciliation that they do not bother. They bother for power only and power has come out side of constitutional politics. Outside of institutional framework and outside of dialogue and that creates a lot of passion and violence in Indian politics. !992 is gone but there is a shadow of 1992 falling over Indian politics.

Advani after the incident of December 6 got a breakdown and went to St George Hospital of Lucknow in the evening of the day. The medieval city provided them some good music and classical dance of Kathak for welcoming him. The chief minister Kalyan Singh arranged everything for welcoming him before resigning from the post. Despite that he felt sad as the memory of such a violent action haunted him which created a sleepless night. As he had an experience of involving in riots of smaller size in Karachi, Mumbai and Ahmadabad, his shock haunted whole life. But in his autobiography he says that there were two people praised the breakdown of the Babri Masjid by their party supporters. One a leading writer Naipaul got a Nobel prize for his writings. He is not Indian but a migrant to the West Indies and settled in London like Advani a migrant from Sindhi to India. In one of his novel 'The Wounded civilization" he criticized Indira Gandhi's Garibi Hatao as it was an attack on Hindu philosophy as Hinduism believes in the poverty as a product of life works. Good work leads to prosperity in next life. What a wonderful philosophy he elucidated. In his life he wanted to enjoy life with as many marriages which a Hindu does not believe in. In one marriage with a Pakistan girl he claimed that she was in previous life was a Brahmin. The next one Girilal Jain, former editor of Times of India joined the Hindutva bandwagon as the chief of centre of Hindu civilization. The third he says that Nirod C Chaudhuri a leading writer a Bengali and settled in England gave a statement "Indians are finally learning how to create history". Advani after being Home Minister in Vajpayee's cabinet looked for the support of intelligentsia who could write for them and speak for them. As he could not get the support of indigenous intelligentsia, he went to London and went to see Nirod Chaudhuri who was completing a century and enjoying over cup of Coffee as a good Hindu wants to lead the satayu according to Vedas. He met him and Nirod Babu as a good Bengali scholar having a good knowledge of Sanskrit and English put a straight question,' Have you read Vedas, Upanishads?" Advani answered, 'No'. Then why have you come to me. You are an idiot. As whole dialogue between Chaudhuri and Advani got published in Guardian by Pankaj Mishra a journalist and a famous novelist. Advani in his autobiography has not mentioned this incident but quoting Nirod Babu by that he became the father of fake news in India as his party having created much fake news today.

 December 6, 1992 remained as the day of worst riots in North India and Western India. The RSS pracharaks were active in persuading their supporters in attacking the life and property of minorities. UP saw that 20 people belonging to the minorities got killed and many of their houses and shops got blazed. Ahmadabad the city controlled by BJP created attacks on Muslims where there were twenty two people died. But rathyatra politics saw a large scale riots all over Gujarat under the supervision of Modi who was responsible to work as BJP Gujarat branch as the Secretary. He got a training under the Guru Advani while the rath of Ram was moving there were riots in both the cities and rural Gujarat. For Advani and Modi perhaps the riots were the feast for their eyes. As Advani in his autobiography gave a chapter on the rathyatra from Gujarat to UP. It was a great victory march for him. But he felt sad about the destruction of the Babri Masjid but he wrote a paragraph telling that "A group of Kar sevaks delivered their own verdict on some of the seminal questions of Indian history, both medieval and modern. Ram or Babar? ........But it did make a day of Hindu awakening truly historic import." In other words he admitted it was a great day in his life and then how hypocritically spoke of his sadness over the incident. He sent in his resignation as the leader of opposition. Politics of rathyatra were guided by Advani and managed by chota Advani that is Modi.

Let us examine the riots in the capital town of Rajasthan which experienced killing of 22 people in riots aftermath of December 6. It is a city built by Kings of Jaipur who ruled this place for years. The mapping of the city is done on the lines Sahajahanbad of Delhi. The aristocracy lives in the centre of city where the Fort is standing, the main lane of the city where the trading community lives in. In the outskirts of the city common people live which is a mixed one. During the partition time the city has not experienced of riots. But December 6 is a bigger event in the political life of RSS that they created riots in Jaipur which resulted in deaths. The BJP was ruling over Rajasthan which encouraged the riot by not allowing the administration to take precautionary measures. Riots are organised by RSS with the support of Administration. Rathyatra politics culminated in the destruction of the Babri Masjid which created a large scale riots in the major cities of India. Cities like Jaipur and Bhopal are not industrial cities where as Bombay and Ahmadabad are the industrial towns. These two cities started burning in post rathyatra politics. Bombay film has tried to captured the riots of the cities in his cinematic narrative where Muslim community started a spontaneous protest against the breakdown of the Babrimasjid. While each religious community became a part of “We the people of India” on a condition that state provides security to their religious places. This scene has been captured by the film maker as the camera moves on the mosque from where the crowd is moving to the street and attacking public transport buses and vehicles as a symbol of protest. But the police should have allowed the procession to move and reach their destination. On the contrary they have been attacked by the RSS and Police both which resulted in deaths. Camera moves on two children over whom petrol is being poured in the process. Somehow both the children survive with mental scars. Each riot creates a bad memory for children who carry this memory and turn into a fundamentalist.  In the story lovers belonging two different communities get married but cannot enjoy as the civil society does not recognize their marriage, but the laws of the State accepts it  although Indian constitution recognizes the interreligion marriage. These lovers for the first time meet get expressed in a beautiful song but in a reality two different persons allowed to dance which explains the reality. We have different identities and sharing the space but communal riots get organised to push one group from the shared space to the margin of the society. Urban society based on individuality does not work. It turns into a community identity. This film uses the text in the political context of constitutional democracy. Justice Srikrishnan Commission report recognizes the protest by Muslims as a spontaneous protest which would have managed by the Bombay police in a professional manner. Furthermore it has found the names of policemen and name of the RSS and Shivsena people who involved in the attacks on Muslims. No Justice has reached these victims till now. The story of injustice became a reality for the people living on the margins.

V S Naipaul, an eminent writer has got Nobel Prize and Bharat Ratna from Indian State during the BJP rule. It is interesting to note down that for the first time Prime Minister Modi wrote in his memory which is a rare thing as he as the Prime Minister of India is very much less educated and is not a well-read person. He as the Prime Minister has a close association with the WWF who shows his muscle power than their intelligence and imagination. His view of politics is like a contest in WWF where violence through punching is common for getting the Money Bag hanging from above. Jumping and wrestling and pushing some body to catch the money bag. Modi with help of his friend Amit Shah has been trying to beat his opponents with their muscular power not in a lucid style or logical way of arguing based on facts and imagination. One feels that he might not have read all his novels and might have told by the retired officials of the PMO that Naipaul was a great supporter of his muscular politics and Hindutva politics who as the author got a reference by his political guru Advani another muscular politician. Modi has a similarity with Naipaul in attacking Nehru and Indira Gandhi where both agree to make the India the Congress Mukta. As both believe in that Hinduism believes in destiny and second life that only good things in the past life can bring wealth and power.  Both do not believe in the state intervention which  is going to change the outdated ideas of Hinduism as poverty can be tackled with right to entitlement be it right to food, right to education and right to health. These rights every Indian aspires to give himself or herself or his child by making him or her empowered. It is interesting to note here that I was working over Advani 's rathyatra politics of 1990 to 1992 which resulted in destruction of a historical monument like Babri Masjid but no Indian writer has supported this action in his or her imaginary world which Naipaul did what a shame on his part. Yes Indian writers of high intensity and passion but their creative world never supported such a violent action of Modi and Advani.

Advani in his autobiography gives an importance to his belief in destiny in explaining destruction of Babri  on December 6. To avoid his role in destruction of four hundred year old Masjid by his supporters who were hoodlums affiliated to the RSS, he has taken this stand. After destruction of the structure he ignored his own role in mobilization of these forces in leading the rathyatra from Somanath to Ayodhya. By explaining the role of Somanath prior to the starting of rathyatra in explaining his own position that the reconstruction of the temple over the ruined temple by so called Muslim rule which is a disputed point. As Romila Thapar in her work found there are four versions regarding the plundering of wealth of the temple. By ignoring the historical truth which is a contested one they have reconstructed the facts behind destruction of the temple to suit their interests. Their interests are fixed according to their ideological prejudices rather than based on facts. Moreover, the rich and prosperous traders living abroad gave a handsome fund which pushed the rath moving. This fund motivated his supporters to create riots on the way. The way rath was moving on the way to Ayodhya there were attacks on the property and life of Muslims living in the towns falling on the route. There is no destiny here and it was a planned one where various forces worked to create a situation by which destruction of the Babri Masjid was being done. In his autobiography he admitted that there were implements taken over to the tombs of the Masjid. These implements are not surely product of destiny according to Hinduism. Such a violent incident has never happened in modern India nor even in colonial period that explained his role is important in planning to attack the Masjid by their hoodlums. Forces he unleashed on the route of his rathyatra created a situation which he could have controlled. He promised in the National Integration Council that they would not destroy the Masjid. There are research works available to prove the point that there is no truth behind their point of view that the Masjid was built over the destruction of the temple or Ram Mandir. As a good Hindu he is being charged by the CBI which he used to control over as the Home Minister of Vajpayee government for conspiring for the destruction of the Masjid for which he is facing day to day trial in Lucknow. Will he say that it is a matter of destiny which he is suffering today. As he has taken Maunbrata because of the fear of 'big eyes of some body' as the Johny Walker sings in an old Hindi film song. Whose fear needs to be told to the public. We assume that the big eyes of his Sishya Modi of whom he is scared of for which he is silent now not because of destiny of his life.

Indian literature is much and more complex like Indian society and culture. The creative world has tried to capture nuances of cultural diversity of our society. Many literatures reflect our cultural strength. Our poetic creation always gets associated with the first couplet of the Ramayan where two birds were in love play while the hunter shoots at them. Poet Balmiki wrote a wonderful couplet in condemning brutality of human being in favour of the birds. That humanism of Indian creative world incorporates the animals, birds and flowers and earth, sky and wind. Our mythological stories look at nature with an awe and relates it with human behavior. This reflects in our aesthetic tradition where each month of summer, rainy season, winter season and spring is being praised with the help of flowers trees and wind. The best songs of Tagore's Baramasi speak of the beauty of each month. Such a tradition never bothered about religion and but different colours of flowers and leaves. Beauty is taken in a different taste rather than colour. Such a rich creative world either ignored the December 6 which got appreciated by the Hindutva forces led by Advani. Each writer got a wound in his or her soul so deep could not express their feelings. It seems that Indian literary tradition has not accepted the glorious moment of Hindutva forces that is December 6. Nor our literature in English and other foreign languages accepted this view. It reflects in the regional films and Hindi films which never appreciates the sufferings of people because of riots linked with the rathyatra politics and December 6. National School of Drama where annual theatre festival gets organized every year in bringing regional plays never had appreciated the violent event of December 6. It creates a puzzling question that why Naipaul wrote in support of December 6. He is an eminent writer nobody can underestimate his contribution to literary world. Either he never understands the aesthetic traditions prevailing in India. He was a migrant from Bihar to West Indies as a migrant he must have heard the pains and tortures suffered during the ship yatra. Their high caste got polluted by mixing with the lower castes. There is a description of this scene inter caste pollution suffered during the yatra by Amitav Ghosh. That may be the reason for his myopic view of the Indian politics.

December 6 created a deep wound in each heart of the leading painters of India. M F Hussain and Raza all of them belong Indian progressive artist association established in 1950. With Advani's rathyatra did not move them as they were internationally recognized modernists. As artists have their engagement with the problems of people but not chief popularity of the Advani and co. It did not appeal them. Raza makes paintings of mystic consciousness of Hinduism where his series of paintings regarding mythic consciousness of Hinduism where mythic world centres on the self. That these creative works much nearer to Ram Krishna that realization of self is a critical in Hinduism for self-realization. There is no community way of realizing one's salvation. Advani's rathyatra is more of mobilisation of community rather than self which negates the mythic basis of Hinduism. His activities were negation of all good things which stand for Hinduism. Writers and artists did not move which made Hindutva forces angry. Once they came to power in 1994 decided to harass them. Their paintings got vandalised by the VHP members. They started harassing the writers and play writers which resulted in creating a distance from the BJP.

Other professional bodies did not move with their violent activities. The Indian Historical Association which is a professional body condemned the incident December 6 and passed a resolution on Indian historiography which does not approve the historical basis of the Babri Masjid created by the Hindutva forces. Professional bodies opposed them and condemned the activities related to December 6. In the public institutions like School of Planning and Architecture where my students openly condemned the incident. It is painful to record here according to Praful Bidwai a leading journalist and environmentalist was on lecture series to LBS Academy Mussourie where IAS officers celebrated the incident. Such a horrific incident appealed them which Praful reported the incident in an article in a Newspaper but Director of Academy did refute it. In another institution where IAS officers get training such as Indian Institute of Public Administration some of the retired IAS officers supported the incident. Academic community did not support the incident. It needs to probe the point that why some of the IAS officers did support the incident which violated the constitutional principles of settlement of disputes which they are a party to it.

December 6 is no more a date in the calendar but a political metaphor. Very rarely a metaphor is created in the counter political narrative which is parallel to constitutional democracy. A metaphor stands for violence and unconstitutional means to achieve political power. As the famous poet Kaifi Azmi raised a point that it was like Ram banabash for twelve years. He uses Ram in the place of democracy which has been hibernating for some time. Dasratha for the first time used illegal means to disown his own son to satisfy one of three wives. Illegality is a part of his style for which Ram went to jungle with his wife Sita and faced the problems from Ravan. Ram launched war not only to defeat Ravan and bring back Sita but destroy the Swarna Lanka or Golden Lanka. After so many years we have been hearing such a violent voice that Pakistan Murdabad. If you look at any election year one hears this voice against Pakistan to appeal their supporters and create a communal polarization. The same thing happened while rathyatra politics was directed by Advani. There was no sanskritan in the name of Ram or no bhajans but Destroy Pakistan which was heard while destroying the Babri Masjid. These Hindu militants can be characterised as Hindu Talibans as said by Rajiv Dhavan while pleading at present the case in the Supreme Court. Such a language of violence has no place in democracy while agreeing with Dhavan a senior lawyer and academic and that Talibans have no respect for old architecture and old monuments and history of human civilization who destroyed the Buddhist sculpture some years back in Afghanistan.

Frontier
Aug 31, 2018


Prof Radhakanta Barik [email protected]

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